According to the World Health Organization and the International Association for Hypertension, blood pressure values over 140/90mmHg (18,7/12,0 kPa) in repeated measurements are defined as high blood pressure.

High blood pressure (hypertension) is a systemic disease that can result in numerous damage to various organs (mostly heart, brain, kidney).


Hypertension is in most cases a disease without symptoms. Some people may have headaches, feelings of air deficiency or nose bleeds, but these signs and symptoms are not specific.

Complications of high blood pressure

  • Stroke
  • Heart attack (myocardial infarction)
  • Heart failure
  • Aneurisms
  • Renal complications
  • Eye complications
  • Malignant or accelerated hypertension


Esencial hypertension – high blood pressure of an unknown cause 95%

Secondary arterial hypertensions-high blood pressure of a known cause 5%

  • Kidney disease
  • Endocrine causes
  • Application of oral contraceptives
  • Coarctation of the aorta
  • Obstructive sleep apnea


Blood pressure is measured correctly using cuffs of appropriate width. During the measurement of blood pressure, a doctor establishes the value of systolic (upper) and diastolic (lower) blood pressure with the help of a stethoscope placed over the artery in the elbow pit.

Values ​​of optimal arterial blood pressure according to the European Association for Hypertension is for systolic <120 mmHg and diastolic <80 mmHg.

Normal arterial blood pressure is systolic 120-129 mmHg and/or diastolic 80-84 mmHg. High-normal arterial blood pressure is systolic 130-139 mmHg and/or diastolic 85-89 mmHg.

Hypertension can be divided into several stages

systolic 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic 90-99 mmHg, stage

2-systolic 160-179 mmHg and/or diastolic 100-109 mmHg, stage

3-systolic ≥ 180 mm and/or diastolic ≥ 110 mmHg.

Isolated systolic hypertension is indicated when systolic is ≥ 140 mmHg and diastolic <90 mmHg.

Medical treatment

  • Diuretics (medicines for excess fluid release by urination)
  • ACE inhibitors – angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Beta blockers
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Alpha receptor antagonists
  • Direct vasodilators


Healthy diet with reduced salt intake (up to 2.3 mg for healthy people, and up to 1.5 mg per day for people over 51 years of age, with high blood pressure, diabetes or kidney weakness), rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grain products, fish, increased potassium intake

  • Maintain normal weight or reduce body weight in obese people
  • Regular physical activity
  • Restrict alcohol intake
  • Cessation of smoking

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