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CARDIOMIOPATIES


Cardiomyopathy is a name for a group of various diseases that lead to damage to the heart function. Cardiomyopathy can be caused by heart failure called primary cardiomyopathy or the heart may be affected by disorders that primarily involve other organ systems and is called secondary cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy may arise as a result of the inherited gene, i.e. mutations and is called hereditary cardiomyopathy, and can also be a consequence of process damage and this is called acquired cardiomyopathy. Most primary cardiomyopathies are hypertrophic, dilatative and restrictive.

4a) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a hereditary disorder of the heart muscle that is unevenly thick. The consequence is a difficult passage of blood, reduced stretching (blood filling) of the heart, and later impairment of the function of the heart as a pump, and tendency to disturbances of the heart rhythm and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death.

Symptoms:

Shortness of breath, chest pain and feeling of irregular heart rhythms, disorders of consciousness

Diagnosis:

Anamnesis, clinical examination, cardiac ultrasound, and cardiac catheterization, and useful information in the assessment of the severity of the disease are given through ergometry and the 24-hour Holter ECG.

Treatment:

Primary medicines (which slow down the progression of the disease, reduce the symptoms and the risk of adverse events)

Implantation of CRT

Surgical route – septal myectomy

Alcoholic septal albation

4b) Dilatation cardiomyopathy is a mixed, hereditary and acquired primary myocardial disease that results in the expansion of the heart cavities and a significant reduction in the function of the heart as a pump.

Symptoms:

Shortness of breath, swelling of legs and abdomen, weakness, non-tolerance of physical effort, and others.

Diagnosis:

Anamnesis, clinical examination, heart ultrasound, and catheterization of the heart.

Treatment:

Primarily with medicines that slow down disease worsening, reduce symptoms and unwanted events.

In certain cases, consideration is given to the installation of devices similar to electrostimulator (ICD) which can improve the cardiac function and discontinue malignant arrhythmia.

In the final stage of the disease, in some cases, heart transplantation is considered.

4c) Restrictive cardiomyopathy is a disorder that occurs due to a decrease in cardiac extensibility and difficulty filling heart ventricles during a diastole. It is the most uncommon form of cardiomyopathy. The disorder can be idiopathic-without a known pattern or secondary-within a systemic disorder

Symptoms:

General weakness, breathlessness in effort.

Diagnosis:

Anamnesis, clinical examination, ultrasound of the heart

Treatment:

It is directed towards the cause.

Surgical route – surgical treatment.


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