ATRIAL SEPtAL DEFECT


Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common congenital heart defects in adults. The defect is localized high in the interventricular barrier, most often in the middle level of the septum (ostium secundum), near the mouth of the vena cava superior. The low localized defect of the interventricular barrier, the ostium primum type, is often associated with defects in the basal part of the interventricle barrier, and can be extended to the septal cuspis of the mitral and tricuspid valve and cause valvular insufficiency.

Causes:

Interaction of genetic factors and environmental factors.

Different teratogenic factors during pregnancy like hypoxia, ionizing radiation, some medications.

Symptoms:

In children, mostly asymptomatic, mild signs of physical underdevelopment and tendency towards respiratory infections.

Symptoms of fatigue,  poorer tolerance of physical effort, cyanosis (occurring usually only during adulthood by the development of pulmonary hypertension and gradual shunt reversal into the right-left)

Diagnosis

Anamnesis, clinical examination, ECG, RTG, ultrasound examination, cardiac catheterization.

Treatment

Surgical treatment ideally between 3 and 5 years of age, successful also in patients in adult life)

Medical therapy in the prophylaxis and treatment of atrial disorders of rhythm (atrial fibrillation and supraventricular tachycardia), cardiac insufficiency, if these complications occur.


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